The theme of Islam and Judeo-Christianity is the relationship between these three faiths under three headings that are often promoted as a basis for commonality between them (sons of Abraham, monotheism, and religions of the book). Ellul incisively critiques these expressions, finding less common ground than is generally accepted and a pattern of conformism.
The English edition of Islam and Judeo-Christianity includes a foreword by David Gill and Dominique North Ellul, and Alain Besancon's extensive foreword to the French edition of Islam and Judeo-Christianity (relocated to the appendices in this edition). The book also includes other writings on this theme by Ellul: Firstly, chapter 5 from Ellul's Subversion of Christianity where "Islam is portrayed as a non-progressive, totalitarian religion, founded on the concept of divine right, and credited with having introduced into Christianity the idea of holy war." Secondly, Ellul's foreword to The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam written by Bat Ye'or (1985), which documents the conditions of Jews and Christians in Muslim society. Thirdly, Ellul's foreword to The Decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude, also by Bat Ye'or (1996), which further explores the history of Jews and Christians under Islam.